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An alphabetical glossary of technical terms used on the site.

T cells

A type of white blood cell that has an important role in activating or directing the immune system to fight infections.


A flightless bird indigenous to New Zealand New Zealand, also known as the South Island takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri). It was thought to be extinct, but was rediscovered in Fiordland in 1948.


A treasure or something prized, which can be property, goods, possessions or effects.


A group of one or more organisms (singular: taxon).


The classification of organisms based on their observable characteristics.


The primary male sex hormone (it is also found in low levels in females).


The branch of medicine focusing on the treatment of disease and how medicines work.

Thermally resistant

A measure of a material's ability to resist heat transfer.


Requiring very high temperatures for normal growth and development (thermo=heat; philic=fond).


A substance that is gel-like when still, but liquid when agitated.


One of the building blocks of DNA, formed when the nucleotide thymine (T) is attached to a sugar group.

Tissue culture

The growth of cells or tissue under carefully controlled laboratory conditions.


New Zealand native tree, also know as the New Zealand ash (Alectryon excelsus).


Poisonous or harmful.


The study of the toxic effect of substances.


The ability to trace something back to its source.


Characteristic, usually a physical characteristic of a living organism, such as the height of a plant or the hair colour of a mammal.


The process in which DNA is copied to form a complementary RNA sequence. The first step in protein synthesis.

Transcription factor

A protein that switches the expression of genes on and off.


Changing the genotype and phenotype of an organism by introducing different DNA into its cells.


A gene that has been integrated into the genome of a recipient organism.


An organism (plant, animal, bacteria or virus) whose genome has been changed using genetic material from a different species.


The process in which a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence is used as a template to form a sequence of amino acids (a protein). Occurs after transcription.


See through.


When a cell, tissue or organ is removed from one organism and placed in another.


A combination of glycerol and fatty acid that circulates in the blood.

Trommel washer

Large piece of manufacturing equipment that rotates and can be used for washing and sieving materials.

Tuberculosis (TB)

An infectious disease of humans and animals that usually affects the lungs.


A mass of cells resulting from abnormal cell growth and division.


A description for a liquid that is muddy, thick, or not clear.

Type 1 diabetes

A chronic condition where the body produces too little insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. Also known as insulin-dependent, childhood or juvenile diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes

A condition where insulin is no longer able to regulate blood sugar levels, symptoms are influenced by diet and lifestyle. Also known as non-insulin dependent or adult-onset diabetes.

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